The Internal Courtyards House.

Assist. Prof. Dr. Jeerasak Kueasombut, Mr. Rapeepat Ratanachod and Mr. Chatchai Ditsadee

Introduction :

When you look inside, you might only see a white box-shaped building divided into square shapes for parking functions and a small courtyard, where treetops can only be seen through the hole. Along with a front blackout to keep outsiders from seeing, this enables the internal space to be fully exposed to the hidden nature inside.  

The design process begins by analyzing the physical environment and defining the desired nature of the interaction. In this project, the project opted for a view towards the green space at the back of the site and turned away from the view of the entrance that connects to the chaotic public road. First courtyard is positioned in the middle of the building to act as an open space and allows all areas to interact with the exterior and the trees in the middle of the courtyard, and also serves as a secondary entrance for access. And create an experience of recognizing nature and the changes of the environment that are different from the main entrance. Second courtyard is inserted into the corridor and staircase area. Serves to create awareness of the state of being inside – outside. Third courtyard serves as a barrier between the two spaces, a small green space that creates a unique perspective and continuity to the outside. The concept of the courtyard, used as the main tool in the design of this building, is the interpretation of the “Chan” in traditional Thai houses based on the human-architectural-nature theory. The “Chan” area is still the heart of the house. It is a connection area that provides a state of comfort, safety, shady and pleasant and is a space that relates to the human mind. (Pobsook Tadtong. (2020). The Meaning of Chan (Center Terrace) in Contemporary Thai House. Doctor of Philosophy (Vernacular Architecture). 

Under approximately 260 square meters of this house, there is a courtyard (internal courtyard), with a ratio of about 30% of all areas interacting with green areas of the courtyard to connect, which has access to all the house’s functions. Each courtyard is designed to provide residents with multiple opportunities to interact with nature. No matter what feeling of being surrounded by nature or connecting scenery from outside to inside and creating a sense of belonging between the green space and the living space. Also designed each courtyard is intended to provide an atmosphere for multiple areas of the house at the same time. To connect the inner space, open to the surrounding nature. It makes living in a house feel like you’re always surrounded by nature, whether it’s a view from the trees, the sky, or natural light. The surrounding nature is emphasized by a simple architectural design. Through its architectural simplicity, the design seeks to raise awareness of privacy and the ability to connect to the environment at the right moment without increasing or communicating anything other than the usage’s purpose. Capable of clearly communicating the user’s identity based on the needs of the homeowner, serving privacy and security concerns. Also ready to fully see the direction that is open to the relationship with the natural surroundings.


The objective of the project is to design a residential building that responds to the changing urban environment and enhances the connection between residents and nature. 


The design process is divided into four steps. 

1. Analysis of the relationship between interior space and the environment suitable for perception. 

2. Organization the courtyards to control the environment Shade direction, ventilation, creating a good view and atmosphere to the external environment. 

3. Inserting green space with courtyards of different sizes to different parts of the house to create a view to nature to create a variety of levels of relationship. 

4. Enclosing space with a solid void language that corresponds to the intended use of the internal space. and choose to interact with the surrounding environment appropriately. 

Techniques and Materials:

Under the simple architecture language comes from straightforward design tool conditions. The building is volumetric from the cube and then subtracted by negative spaces that act as courtyards and green spaces. The position of the subtract space creates a natural perspective into the interior space. and create continuity from the inside to the outside It also creates a different level of experience and perception of nature. 


The results obtained from the use of the courtyard are used to filter the good environment into the central area of the house. and working with Green Space to create a balance between privacy and the level of interaction with the environment appropriately. 

The urban environment in Thailand has a rapid and unpredictable direction of change. The role of architecture that harmonizes human beings with nature has been reduced. Applying the concept of human-architectural-nature relations Through the “Chan” in the form of Internal Courtyards, this project is one of the attempts to bring back the original architecture’s function. 


Pobsook Tadtong. (2020). The Meaning of Chan (Center Terrace) in Contemporary Thai House. Doctor of Philosophy (Vernacular Architecture). /Silpakorn University.